Ajk kotisivu Asko Korpela (AjkKindle)
Kindle books in 2011

FinishedbkmgenlanpagstaAmaRevAjkwrdhglAuthor: Bookname
1.  20110809  86
cla
spa
9005* ama214Miguel Cervantes Saavedra: El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha
2.  20110827  2
rel
eng
3745* ama008ajk1188William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science
3.  20110902 
fic
eng
7283* ama11Orhan Pamuk: Museum of innocence
4.  20111015  1
fic
fra
3645* ama3116Victor Hugo: Han d'Islande
5.  20111128 
eco
eng
3545* ama009ajk4100Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations
6.  20111220  1
cla
fra
5905* ama396Victor Hugo: Notre dame de Paris
7.  20111220  1
fic
eng
5135* ama22Mark Twain: The Gilded Age
FinishedbkmgenlanpagstaAmaRevAjkwrdhglAuthor: Bookname

1 Miguel Cervantes Saavedra:
El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha


KindleLink: Miguel Cervantes Saavedra: El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha
AjkReview: ajk

900pages

2 William Draper:
History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science


KindleLink: William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science
AjkReview: ajk

9001 THE ORIGIN OF SCIENCE.
28002 ORIGIN OF CHRISTIANITY.--ITS TRANSFORMATION ON ATTAINING IMPERIAL POWER.--ITS RELATIONS TO SCIENCE.
47003 CONFLICT RESPECTING THE DOCTRINE OF THE SOUTHERN REFORMATION.
67004 IV. THE RESTORATION OF SCIENCE IN THE SOUTH.
77005 CONFLICT RESPECTING THE NATURE OF THE SOUL.- DOCTRINE OF EMANATION AND ABSORPTION.
95006 CONFLICT RESPECTING THE NATURE OF THE WORLD.
112007 CONTROVERSY RESPECTING THE AGE OF THE EARTH.
123008 VIII. CONFLICT RESPECTING THE CRITERION OF TRUTH.
137009 CONTROVERSY RESPECTING THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNIVERSE.
153010 LATIN CHRISTIANITY IN RELATION TO MODERN CIVILIZATION.
170011 SCIENCE IN RELATION TO MODERN CIVILIZATION.
194012 THE IMPENDING CRISIS.
197013 ENCYCLICAL LETTER AND SYLLABUS.
374pages

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 1 12
History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 1 12
John William Draper

0001 PREFACE.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 3 35
The history of Science is not a mere record of isolated discoveries; it is a narrative of the conflict of two contending powers, the expansive force of the human intellect on one side, and the compression arising from traditionary faith and human int...

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 6 71
In selecting and arranging the topics now to be presented, I have been guided in part by "the Confession" of the late Vatican Council, and in part by the order of events in history.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 6 71
What is God? What is the soul? What is the world? How is it governed? Have we any standard or criterion of truth?

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 8 94
Evolution, Creation, Development.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 8 94
An examination of what Latin Christianity has done for modern civilization. A corresponding examination of what Science has done.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 8 94
JOHN WILLIAM DRAPER UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK, December, 1878.

01 THE ORIGIN OF SCIENCE.


0101 EFFECTS OF DISCOVERY AND CRITICISM.
0102 THE PERSIAN EMPIRE.
0103 THE PERSIAN EMPIRE.
0104 THE INVASION OF PERSIA BY GREECE.
0105 THE MACEDONIAN CAMPAIGN.
0106 CONQUEST OF EGYPT.
0107 GREEK CONQUEST OF PERSIA.
0108 EVENTS OF THE CAMPAIGNS.
0109 EFFECT ON THE GREEK ARMY.
0110 EFFECTS ON THE GREEK ARMY.
0111 INTELLECTUAL CONDITION OF PERSIA.
0112 INTELLECTUAL CONDITION OF PERSIA.
0113 ITS RELIGIOUS CONDITION.
0114 DEATH OF ALEXANDER.
0115 FOUNDATION OF ALEXANDER.
0116 THE ALEXANDRIAN MUSEUM.
0117 ORGANIZATION OF THE MUSEUM.
0118 SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL OF THE MUSEUM.
0119 ETHICAL SCHOOL OF THE MUSEUM.
0120 THE PRINCIPLES OF STOICISM.
0121 STOICISM IN THE MUSEUM.
0122 PLATONISM IN THE MUSEUM.
0123 PHYSICAL SCIENCE IN THE MUSEUM.
0124 EUCLID--ARCHIMEDES.
0125 ERATOSTHENES--APOLLONIUS--HIPPARCHUS.
0126 THE SYNTAXIS OF PTOLEMY.
0127 INVENTION OF THE STEAM-ENGINE.
0128 POLICY OF THE PTOLEMIES.
0129 THE MUSEUM AND MODERN SCIENCE.

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0101 EFFECTS OF DISCOVERY AND CRITICISM.

0102 THE PERSIAN EMPIRE.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 10 118
they not only denied the unseen, the supernatural, they even affirmed that the world is only a day-dream, a phantasm, and that nothing at all exists.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 10 118
They were ever ready to barter patriotic considerations for foreign gold,

0103 THE PERSIAN EMPIRE.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 11 129
Persian coin, the Daric, which was stamped with the image of an archer.

0104 THE INVASION OF PERSIA BY GREECE.

0105 THE MACEDONIAN CAMPAIGN.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 12 141
B.C. 334 Alexander crossed the Hellespont into Asia. His army consisted of thirty-four thousand foot and four thousand horse.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 12 141
Persian loss was not less than ninety thousand foot and ten thousand horse.

0106 CONQUEST OF EGYPT.

0107 GREEK CONQUEST OF PERSIA.

0108 EVENTS OF THE CAMPAIGNS.

0109 EFFECT ON THE GREEK ARMY.

0110 EFFECTS ON THE GREEK ARMY.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 15 177
the military talent they fostered led to the establishment of the mathematical and practical schools of Alexandria, the true origin of science.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 15 177
his fleet should attempt the circumnavigation of Africa, and come into the Mediterranean through the Pillars of Hercules--a feat which, it was affirmed, had once been accomplished by the Pharaohs.

0111 INTELLECTUAL CONDITION OF PERSIA.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 16 188
Babylonians had fixed the length of a tropical year within twenty-five seconds of the truth; their estimate of the sidereal year was barely two minutes in excess. They had detected the precession of the equinoxes.

0112 INTELLECTUAL CONDITION OF PERSIA.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 16 188
Not without interest do we still look on specimens of their method of printing. Upon a revolving roller they engraved, in cuneiform letters, their records, and, running this over plastic clay formed into blocks, produced ineffaceable proofs. From the...

0113 ITS RELIGIOUS CONDITION.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 17 200
It is the duty of a good man to cultivate truth, purity, and industry.

0114 DEATH OF ALEXANDER.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 17 200
Alexander died at Babylon before he had completed his thirty-third year (B.C. 323). There was a suspicion that he had been poisoned.

0115 FOUNDATION OF ALEXANDER.

0116 THE ALEXANDRIAN MUSEUM.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 19 224
Philadelphian library, and were crowded with the choicest statues and pictures. This library eventually comprised four hundred thousand volumes.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 19 224
In the establishment of the Museum, Ptolemy Soter and his son Philadelphus had three objects in view: 1. The perpetuation of such knowledge as was then in the world; 2. Its increase; 3. Its diffusion.

0117 ORGANIZATION OF THE MUSEUM.

0118 SCIENTIFIC SCHOOL OF THE MUSEUM.

0119 ETHICAL SCHOOL OF THE MUSEUM.

0120 THE PRINCIPLES OF STOICISM.

0121 STOICISM IN THE MUSEUM.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 22 259
though there is a Supreme Power, there is no Supreme Being. There is an invisible principle, but not a personal God, to whom it would be not so much blasphemy as absurdity to impute the form. the sentiments, the passions of man.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 23 271
unrepining submission to whatever befalls us, a life led in accordance with reason?

0122 PLATONISM IN THE MUSEUM.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 23 271
Plato, therefore, trusted to the imagination, Aristotle to reason.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 23 271
The philosophy of Plato is a gorgeous castle in the air; that of Aristotle a solid structure, laboriously,

0123 PHYSICAL SCIENCE IN THE MUSEUM.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 24 282
the only observation which the history of astronomy offers us, made by the Greeks before the school of Alexandria, is that of the summer solstice of the year B.C. 432. by Meton and Euctemon.

0124 EUCLID--ARCHIMEDES.

0125 ERATOSTHENES--APOLLONIUS--HIPPARCHUS.

0126 THE SYNTAXIS OF PTOLEMY.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 25 294
Ptolemy, the author of the great work, "Syntaxis," "a Treatise on the Mathematical Construction displaced by the immortal "Principia" of Newton.

0127 INVENTION OF THE STEAM-ENGINE.

0128 POLICY OF THE PTOLEMIES.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 27 318
The traditions of the Heavens." It maintained its ground for nearly fifteen hundred years, and indeed was only recognized that within this world of transient delusions and unrealities there is a world of eternal truth.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 27 318
It is to be discovered by the investigations of geometry, and by the practical interrogation of Nature.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 27 318
The day will never come when any one of the propositions of Euclid will be

0129 THE MUSEUM AND MODERN SCIENCE.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 27 318
The Museum of Alexandria was thus the birthplace of modern science.

02 ORIGIN OF CHRISTIANITY.--ITS TRANSFORMATION ON ATTAINING IMPERIAL POWER.--ITS RELATIONS TO SCIENCE.


0201 MONOTHEISM IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE.
0202 THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY
0203 IT GATHERS POLITICAL POWER.
0204 THE FIRST CHRISTIAN EMPEROR.
0205 TERTU WAN'S EXPOSITION OF CHRISTIANITY.
0206 PAGANIZATION OF CHRISTIANITY.
0207 CHRISTIANITY UNDER CONSTANTINE.
0208 INTRODUCTION OF ROMAN RITES.
0209 DEBASEMENT OF CHRISTIANITY.
0210 THE TRINITARIAN DISPUTE.
0211 THE MURDER OF HYPATIA.
0212 PELAGIUS.
0213 CONDEMNATION OF PELAGIUS.
0214 ST. AUGUSTINE.
0215 CRITICISM OF ST. AUGUSTINE.
0216 THE PATRISTIC PHILOSOPHY.

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0201 MONOTHEISM IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 28 329
Considering the connection which in all ages has existed between political and religious ideas, it was then not at all strange that polytheism should manifest a tendency to pass into monotheism.

0202 THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 29 341
The widows and orphans of the community were thus supported, the poor and the sick sustained. From this germ was developed a new, and as the events proved, all-powerful society-the Church;

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 30 353
Its propagation was hastened by missionaries who made it known in all directions. None of the ancient classical philosophies had ever taken advantage of such a means.

0203 IT GATHERS POLITICAL POWER.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 30 353
it began to exhibit political tendencies, a disposition to form a government within the government, an empire within the empire.

0204 THE FIRST CHRISTIAN EMPEROR.

0205 TERTU WAN'S EXPOSITION OF CHRISTIANITY.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 31 365
"The books of Moses, in which God has inclosed, as in a treasure, all the religion of the Jews, and consequently all the Christian religion, reach far beyond the oldest you have, even beyond all your public monuments, the establishment of your state,...

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 32 377
The divinity of these Scriptures is proved by this, that all that is done in our days may be found predicted in them; they contain all that has since passed in the view of men.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 32 377
These Holy Scriptures teach us that there is one God, who made the world out of nothing,

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 32 377
The prophets of those old times were Jews; they addressed their oracles, for such they were, to the Jews, who have stored them up in the Scriptures.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 32 377
The honor we bear to Christ does not derogate from the honor we bear to God.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 34 400
Tertullian renews an assertion which, carried into practice, as it subsequently was, affected the intellectual development of all Europe. He declares that the Holy Scriptures are a treasure from which all the true wisdom in the world has been drawn;

0206 PAGANIZATION OF CHRISTIANITY.

0207 CHRISTIANITY UNDER CONSTANTINE.

0208 INTRODUCTION OF ROMAN RITES.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 36 424
Two arguments were relied on for the authenticity of these objects--the authority of the Church, and the working of miracles.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 36 424
Though there were several abbeys that possessed this last peerless relic, no one dared to say that it was impossible they could all be authentic.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 37 435
Nay, the very same temples, the very same images, which were once consecrated to Jupiter and the other demons, are now consecrated to the Virgin Mary and the other saints.

0209 DEBASEMENT OF CHRISTIANITY.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 38 447
sacred and profane knowledge;

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 38 447
Paganism leaned for support on the learning of its philosophers, Christianity on the inspiration of its Fathers

0210 THE TRINITARIAN DISPUTE.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 38 447
Arius, a disappointed candidate for the office of bishop. He took the ground that there was a time when, from the very nature of sonship, the Son did not exist, and a time at which he commenced to be, asserting that it is the necessary condition of t...

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 39 459
"The Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church anathematizes those who say that there was a time when the Son of God was not, and that, before he was begotten, he was not, and that he was made out of nothing, or out of another substance or essence, and is c...

0211 THE MURDER OF HYPATIA.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 40 471
"What am I? Where am I? What can I know?"

0212 PELAGIUS.

0213 CONDEMNATION OF PELAGIUS.

0214 ST. AUGUSTINE.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 41 482
The face of creation testifies that there has been a Creator; but at once arises the question, "How and when did he make heaven and earth? They could not have been made IN heaven and earth, the world could not have been made IN the world, nor

0215 CRITICISM OF ST. AUGUSTINE.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 42 494
I say that, before God made heaven and earth, he did not make any thing, for no creature could be made before any creature was made. Time itself is a creature, and hence it could not possibly exist before

0216 THE PATRISTIC PHILOSOPHY.

03 CONFLICT RESPECTING THE DOCTRINE OF THE SOUTHERN REFORMATION.


0301 ECCLESIASTICAL DISPUTES.
0302 CONFLICT RESPECTING THE DOCTRINE OF THE UNITY OF GOD.--THE FIRST OR SOUTHERN REFORMATION.
0303 EGYPTIAN DOCTRINES.
0304 THE NESTORIANS.
0305 PERSECUTION AND DEATH OF NESTOR.
0306 THE PERSIAN CAMPAIGN.
0307 THE EXPEDITION OF HERACLIUS.
0308 INVASION OF CHOSROES.
0309 MOHAMMED.
0310 never to speak of Jesus as the Son of God, but always as "Jesus, the son of Mary."
0311 VICTORIES OF MOHAMMED.
0312 DEATH OF MOHAMMED.
0313 DOCTRINES OF MOHAMMED.
0314 THE FIRST KHAUF.
0315 THE MOHAMMEDAN HEAVEN.
0316 INVASION OF SYRIA.
0317 FALL OF BOZRAH.
0318 FALL OF DAMASCUS.
0319 FALL OF JERUSALEM.
0320 OVERTHROW OF THE PERSIANS.
0321 INVASION OF EGYPT.
0322 FALL OF ALEXANDRIA.
0323 FALL OF CARTHAGE.
0324 CONQUEST OF SPAIN.
0325 INVASION OF FRANCE.
0326 INSULT TO ROME.
0327 DISSENSIONS OF THE ARABS.
0328 POLITICAL EFFECT OF POLYGAMY.
0329 MOHAMMEDANISM.
0330 anthropomorphic religion. Its God was only a gigantic man, its heaven a mansion of carnal pleasures. From these imperfect ideas its more intelligent classes very soon freed themselves, substituting for them others more philosophical, more correct.

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William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 47 553
cultivation of science was restored, and

0301 ECCLESIASTICAL DISPUTES.

0302 CONFLICT RESPECTING THE DOCTRINE OF THE UNITY OF GOD.--THE FIRST OR SOUTHERN REFORMATION.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 48 565
If, satisfied with this picture of happiness, illiterate persons never inquired how the details of such a heaven were carried out, or how much pleasure there could be in the ennui of such an eternally unchanging, unmoving scene, it was not so with th...

0303 EGYPTIAN DOCTRINES.

0304 THE NESTORIANS.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 49 577
Cyril was determined that the worship of the Virgin as the Mother of God should be recognized, Nestor was determined that it should not.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 49 577
the Virgin should be considered not as the Mother of God, but as the mother of the human portion of Christ,

0305 PERSECUTION AND DEATH OF NESTOR.

0306 THE PERSIAN CAMPAIGN.

0307 THE EXPEDITION OF HERACLIUS.

0308 INVASION OF CHOSROES.

0309 MOHAMMED.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 53 624
Nestorians, as we have seen, denied that God had "a mother." Kopioitu leikepöydälle

0310 never to speak of Jesus as the Son of God, but always as "Jesus, the son of Mary."

0311 VICTORIES OF MOHAMMED.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 55 647
In a nocturnal dream he was carried by Gabriel from Mecca to Jerusalem, and thence in succession through the six heavens. Into the seventh the angel feared to intrude and Mohammed alone passed into the dread cloud that forever enshrouds the Almighty....

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 55 647
Afterward, with Oriental eloquence, he said, "Paradise will be found in the shadow of the crossing of swords."

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 55 647
the doctrine he proclaimed, that "there is but one God," was universally adopted by his countrymen, and his own apostleship accepted

0312 DEATH OF MOHAMMED.

0313 DOCTRINES OF MOHAMMED.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 56 659
He absolutely rejects the Trinity, of which he seems to have entertained the idea that it could not be interpreted otherwise than as presenting three distinct Gods.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 56 659
The God of the Koran is altogether human, both corporeally and mentally, if such expressions may with propriety be used. kindle

0314 THE FIRST KHAUF.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 57 671
PAbubeker, the father of Ayesha, was selected. He was proclaimed the first khalif, or successor of the Prophet.

0315 THE MOHAMMEDAN HEAVEN.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 57 671
"History of the Intellectual Development of Europe."

0316 INVASION OF SYRIA.

0317 FALL OF BOZRAH.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 59 694
And I deny him that was crucified, and whosoever worships him. And I choose God for my Lord, Islam for my faith, Mecca for my temple, the Moslems for my brethren, Mohammed for my prophet, who was sent to lead us in the right way, and to exalt the tru...

0318 FALL OF DAMASCUS.

0319 FALL OF JERUSALEM.

0320 OVERTHROW OF THE PERSIANS.

0321 INVASION OF EGYPT.

0322 FALL OF ALEXANDRIA.

0323 FALL OF CARTHAGE.

0324 CONQUEST OF SPAIN.

0325 INVASION OF FRANCE.

0326 INSULT TO ROME.

0327 DISSENSIONS OF THE ARABS.

0328 POLITICAL EFFECT OF POLYGAMY.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 66 777
A nation may recover the confiscation of its provinces, the confiscation of its wealth; it may survive the imposition of enormous

0329 MOHAMMEDANISM.

0330 anthropomorphic religion. Its God was only a gigantic man, its heaven a mansion of carnal pleasures. From these imperfect ideas its more intelligent classes very soon freed themselves, substituting for them others more philosophical, more correct.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 66 777
The attributes of God cannot be determined from the attributes of man. His sovereignty and government can neither be compared nor measured."

04 IV. THE RESTORATION OF SCIENCE IN THE SOUTH.


0401 THE ALEXANDRIAN LIBRARY BURNT.
0402 INFLUENCE OF THE NESTORIANS AND JEWS.
0403 FATALISM OF THE ARABIANS.
0404 2011081S0820 THEY MEASURE THE EARTH.
0405 THEIR PASSION FOR SCIENCE.
0406 THEIR LITERATURE.
0407 THEY ORIGINATE CHEMISTRY.
0408 THEIR GREAT LIBRARIES.
0409 THE ARABIAN SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT.
0410 ARABIAN ASTRONOMY.
0411 AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURE.

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0401 THE ALEXANDRIAN LIBRARY BURNT.

0402 INFLUENCE OF THE NESTORIANS AND JEWS.

0403 FATALISM OF THE ARABIANS.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 70 824
According to the Koran, the earth is a square plane, edged with vast mountains, which serve the double purpose of balancing it in its seat, and of sustaining the dome of the sky.

0404 2011081S0820 THEY MEASURE THE EARTH.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 71 835
having become acquainted with the globular form of the earth, gave orders to his mathematicians and astronomers to measure a degree of a great circle upon it.

0405 THEIR PASSION FOR SCIENCE.

0406 THEIR LITERATURE.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 72 847
division of the Saracen Empire by internal dissensions into three parts. The Abasside dynasty in Asia, the Fatimite in Egypt, and the Ommiade in Spain,

0407 THEY ORIGINATE CHEMISTRY.

0408 THEIR GREAT LIBRARIES.

0409 THE ARABIAN SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 74 871
Ben Musa furnished the solution of quadratic equations, Omar Ben Ibra him that of cubic equations.

0410 ARABIAN ASTRONOMY.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 75 883
The Arabian astronomers also devoted themselves to the construction and perfection of astronomical instruments, to the measurement of time by clocks of various kinds, by clepsydras and sundials. They were the first to introduce, for this purpose, th...

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 75 883
corrected the Greek misconception, that a ray proceeds from the eye, and touches the object seen, introducing the hypothesis that the ray passes from the object to the eye.

0411 AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURE.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 76 894
when they speak of man, and attribute to him a completeness and equilibrium in nature and constitution--not that man was once a bull, and was changed into an ass, and afterward into a horse, and after that into an ape, and finally became a man."

05 CONFLICT RESPECTING THE NATURE OF THE SOUL.- DOCTRINE OF EMANATION AND ABSORPTION.


0501 THE SOUL.
0502 many different opinions were held. Page 78 - hd3:ASIATIC PSYCHOLOGICAL VIEWS.
0503 EMANATION AND ABSORPTION.
0504 9 ARABIC PSYCHOLOGY. Kopioitu leikepöydälle
0505 In the tenth century the Khalif Hakein II. had made beautiful Andalusia the paradise of the world. Christians, Mussulmen, Jews, mixed together without restraint.

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William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 77 906
THE pagan Greeks and Romans believed that the spirit of man resembles his bodily form, varying its appearance with his variations, and growing with his growth.

0501 THE SOUL.

0502 many different opinions were held. Page 78 - hd3:ASIATIC PSYCHOLOGICAL VIEWS.

0503 EMANATION AND ABSORPTION.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 79 930
Vedaism developed itself into Buddhism, which has become the faith of a

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 79 930
Nirwana is reached, oblivion is attained, a state that has no relation to matter, space, or time.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 79 930
9 from the Father the Son emanates, and thence the Holy Ghost.

0504 9 ARABIC PSYCHOLOGY. Kopioitu leikepöydälle

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 80 941
2011081S08S0 Averroism is philosophical Islamism.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 80 941
Erigena thus conceives of the Deity as an unceasing participator in Nature, being its preserver, maintainer, upholder, and in that respect answering to the soul of the world of the Greeks.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 81 953
In that final absorption which, after a lapse of time, must necessarily come, God will be all in all, and nothing exist but him alone."

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 81 953
There is a fourfold conception of universal Nature-two views of divine Nature, as origin and end; two also of framed Nature, causes and effects. There is nothing eternal but God."

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 82 965
there is no necessity of your perishing, on account of the perishing of your body.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 82 965
In a stone the material particles are in a state of stable equilibrium; it may, therefore, endure forever. An animal is in reality only a form through which a stream of matter is incessantly flowing.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 82 965
Where would human physiology be, if it were not illuminated by the bright irradiations of comparative physiology?

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 82 965
Many domestic animals have reasoning powers, and employ proper means for the attainment of ends. How

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 83 977
"If you will watch a single ant at work, you can tell what he will next do!" He is considering the matter, and reasoning as you are doing.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 83 977
"from bees, and wasps, and ants, and birds, from all that low animal life on which he looks with supercilious contempt, man is destined one day to learn what in truth he really is."

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 83 977
There is no such thing as a spontaneous, or self- originated, thought. Every intellectual act is the consequence of some preceding act. It comes into existence in

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 84 988
Kopioitu leikepöydälle Two fundamental ideas are essentially attached to all our perceptions of external things: they are SPACE and TIME,

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 84 988
The eye is the organ of space, the ear of time; the perceptions of which by the elaborate

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 85 1000
During a third part of our life, in sleep, we are withdrawn from external influences; hearing and sight and the other senses are inactive,but the never-sleeping Mind, that pensive, that veiled enchantress, in her mysterious retirement, looks over the...

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 87 1024
the knowledge of one person could be transmitted to another by conversation. The acts and thoughts of one generation could be imparted to another, and influence its acts and thoughts.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 87 1024
Kopioitu leikepöydälle The invention of the art of writing gave extension and durability to the registration or record of impressions.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 88 1036
The universal, or active, or objective intellect, is uncreated, impassible, incorruptible, has neither beginning nor end; nor does it increase as the number of individual souls increases.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 88 1036
This oneness of the active intellect, or reason, is the essential principle of the Averroistic theory, and is in harmony with the cardinal doctrine of Mohammedanism-the unity of God.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 88 1036
Philosophy has never proposed but two hypotheses to explain the system of the world: first, a personal God existing apart, and a human soul called into existence or created, and thenceforth immortal; second, an impersonal intelligence, or indetermina...

0505 In the tenth century the Khalif Hakein II. had made beautiful Andalusia the paradise of the world. Christians, Mussulmen, Jews, mixed together without restraint.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 90 1059
Averroes in this his blasphemous doctrine denies creation,

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 90 1059
Until Innocent IV. (1243), there was no special tribunal against heretics, distinct from those of the bishops.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 92 1083
On March 30, 1492, the edict of expulsion was signed. All unbaptized Jews, of whatever age, sex, or condition, were ordered to leave the realm by the end of the following July.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 93 1094
Averroes was not their inventor, be merely gave them clearness and expression. Among the Jews of the thirteenth century, he had completely supplanted his imputed master. Aristotle had passed away from their eyes; his great commentator, Averroes, stoo...

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 94 1106
An attempt was made at the Council of Vienne to have his writings absolutely suppressed, and to f(

06 CONFLICT RESPECTING THE NATURE OF THE WORLD.


0601 I HAVE

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0601 I HAVE

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 98 1153
Forbid all Christians reading them. So accurate were they in their observations, that the ablest modern mathematicians have made use of their results. Thus Laplace, in his "Systeme du Monde," adduces the observations of Al-Batagni as affording incontestable proof of the diminution of t...

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 99 1165
the question of the shape of the earth was finally settled by three sailors, Columbus, De Gama, and, above all, by Ferdinand Magellan.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 99 1165
without breaking bulk.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 101 1189
command of Magellan, an expedition of five ships, carrying two hundred and thirty- seven men, was dispatched from Seville, August 10, 1519.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 101 1189
September 7, 1522, after a voyage of more than three years, he brought his ship, the San Vittoria, to anchor in the port of St. Lucar, near Seville. She had accomplished the greatest achievement in the history of the human race. She had circumnavigat...

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 102 1200
Henceforth the theological doctrine of the flatness of the earth was irretrievably overthrown.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 102 1200
To settle this, the French Government, aided by the Academy, sent out two expeditions to measure degrees of the meridian--one under the equator, the other as far north as possible; the former went to Peru, the latter to Swedish Lapland.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 104 1224
he succeeded in making one that, could magnify thirty times.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 104 1224
January 7,1610, he perceived three small stars in a straight line, adjacent to the planet Jupiter, and, a few evenings later, a fourth.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 104 1224
presented a miniature representation of the Copernican system.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 104 1224
must surely have been some other motive than that of illuminating the nights for him.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 105 1236
Galileo was accused of imposture, heresy, blasphemy, atheism. With a view of defending himself, he addressed a letter to the Abbe Castelli, suggesting that the Scriptures were never intended to be a scientific authority, but only a moral guide.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 105 1236
Knowing well that Truth has no need of martyrs, be assented to the required recantation, and gave the promise demanded. kindle

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 105 1236
But in 1632 Galileo ventured on the publication of his work entitled "The System of the World,"

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 105 1236
The opinions thus defended by the Inquisition are now objects of derision to the whole civilized world.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 107 1259
therefore be admitted that the distance of the earth from the sun is somewhat less than ninety-two million miles.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 107 1259
The parallax of a star is the angle contained between two lines drawn from it-one to the sun, the other to the earth.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 108 1271
Worlds are scattered like dust in the abysses in space.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 108 1271
Does not their enormous size demonstrate that, as they are centres of force, so they must be centres of motion-- suns for other systems of worlds?

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 109 1283
His meditations on these subjects had brought him to the conclusion that the views of Averroes are not far from the truth-that there is an Intellect which animates the universe.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 110 1294
Averroes and Spinoza. The latter held that God and the Universe are the same,

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 110 1294
Inquisition, accused not only of being a heretic, but also a heresiarch, who had written things unseemly concerning religion;

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 110 1294
"Perhaps it is with greater fear that you pass the sentence upon me than I receive it." The sentence was carried into effect, and he was burnt at Rome, February 16th, A.D. 1600.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 110 1294
strong suspicions of heresy, since he has said that there are other worlds than ours.

07 CONTROVERSY RESPECTING THE AGE OF THE EARTH.

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William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 113 1330
there were not less than one hundred and thirty-two different opinions as to the year in which the Messiah appeared,

08 VIII. CONFLICT RESPECTING THE CRITERION OF TRUTH.


0801 "WHAT is truth?"

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0801 "WHAT is truth?"

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 130 1530
German Reformation assumed a political organization at Smalcalde.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 131 1542
In 1559, Pope Paul IV. instituted the Congregation of the Index Expurgatorius. "Its duty is to examine books and manuscripts intended for publication, and to decide whether the people may be permitted to read them; to correct those books of which the...

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 132 1553
raising a theological odium against an offender, to put him under a social ban-a course perhaps not less effectual than the other.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 132 1553
In all countries the political power of the Church had greatly declined; her leading men perceived that the cloudy foundation on which she had stood was dissolving away. Repressive measures against her antagonists, in old times resorted to with effec...

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 132 1553
Leibnitz affirmed, in the face of Europe, that "Newton had robbed the Deity of some of his most excellent attributes, and had sapped the foundation of natural religion.”

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 132 1553
From the time of Newton to our own time, the divergence of science from the dogmas of the Church has continually increased. The

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 133 1565
Many good and well-meaning men have attempted to reconcile the statements of Genesis with the discoveries of science, but it is in vain. The divergence has increased so much, that it has become an absolute opposition. One of the antagonists must give...

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 134 1577
the whole Pentateuch is unhistoric and non-Mosaic; it contains the most extraordinary contradictions and impossibilities, sufficient to involve the credibility of the whole-imperfections so many and so conspicuous that they would

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 135 1589
discovery that the Pentateuch is put together out of various sources, or original documents, is beyond all doubt not only one of the most important and most pregnant with consequences for the interpretation of the historical books of the Old Testamen...

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 136 1600
It is to be regretted that the Christian Church has burdened itself with the defense offl Kopioitu leikepöydälle made itself answerable for their manifest contradictions and errors.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 136 1600
Still more, it is to be deeply regretted that the Pentateuch, a production so imperfect as to be unable to stand the touch of modern criticism, should be put forth as the arbiter of

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 136 1600
the Catholic has, in our own times, declared the infallibility of the pope.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 136 1600
There are many who affirm that, if infallibility exists anywhere, it is in oecumenical councils, and yet such councils have not always agreed with each other.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 136 1600
Kopioitu leikepöydälle What proof can be given that infallibility exists in the Church at all? what proof is there that the Church has ever been fairly or justly represented in any council?

09 CONTROVERSY RESPECTING THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNIVERSE.

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William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 139 1636
third law, defining the relation between the mean distances of the planets from the sun and the times of their revolutions; "the squares of the periodic times are proportional to the cubes of the distances."

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 140 1647
Index, therefore, when they denounced the Copernican system as utterly contrary to the Holy Scriptures, prohibited Kepler's "Epitome" of that system. At first he inclined to believe that the orbit of Mars is oval, nor was it until after a wearisome study that he detected the grand truth, its elliptical form.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 140 1647
In some most important particulars Kepler anticipated Newton. He was the first to give clear ideas respecting gravity.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 140 1647
The progress of astronomy is obviously divisible into three periods: 1. The period of observation of the apparent motions of the heavenly bodies. 2. The period of discovery of their real motions, and particularly of the laws of the planetary revoluti...

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 141 1659
Leonardo da Vinci, who was born A.D. 1452. To him, and not to Lord Bacon, must be attributed the renaissance of science.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 141 1659
To ascribe the inductive method to him is to ignore history. His fanciful philosophical suggestions have never been of the

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 141 1659
In the latter half of the seventeenth century, through the works of Borelli, Hooke, and Huyghens, it had become plain that circular motions could be accounted for by the laws of Galileo.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 142 1671
On the principle that all bodies attract each other with forces directly as their masses, and inversely as the squares of their distances, Newton showed that all the movements of the celestial bodies may be accounted for, and that Kepler’s laws might...

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 142 1671
It was proved that the moon is retained in her orbit and made to revolve round the earth by the force of terrestrial gravity.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 142 1671
double stars-*double not merely because they are accidentally in the same line of view, but because they are connected physically, revolving round each other.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 142 1671
Is there for each of us a providential intervention as we thus pass from stage to stage of life?

10 LATIN CHRISTIANITY IN RELATION TO MODERN CIVILIZATION.


1001 LATIN Christianity Kopioitu leikepöydälle
1002 NEED OF A GENERAL COUNCIL.
1003 CATHOLICITY AND CIVILIZATION.

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1001 LATIN Christianity Kopioitu leikepöydälle

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 161 1895
Until the beginning of the ninth century, there was no change in the constitution of the Roman Church.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 163 1918
Up to the end of the twelfth century, the popes were the vicars of Peter; after Innocent III. they were the vicars of Christ.

1002 NEED OF A GENERAL COUNCIL.

1003 CATHOLICITY AND CIVILIZATION.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 167 1965
chief object of ecclesiastical policy was the aggrandizement of the Church, not the promotion of civilization.

11 SCIENCE IN RELATION TO MODERN CIVILIZATION.


1101 THE INTRODUCTION OF SCIENCE INTO EUROPE.-It
1102 THE INTELLECTUAL INFLUENCE OF SQENCE.-It
1103 THE ECONOMICAL INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE
1104 EUROPE,
1105 SCIENCE AND CIVILIZATION.
1106 KNOWLEDGE IS POWER.
1107 ILLUSTRATIONS FROM AMERICAN HISTORY.
1108 QUARREL BETWEEN FRANCE AND THE PAPACY.
1109 INTRODUCTION OF SCIENCE INTO EUROPE.
1110 MOORISH SCIENCE INTRODUCED THROUGH FRANCE.
1111 EFFECT OF THE GREAT SCHISM.
1112 INVENTION OF PRINTING.
1113 EFFECTS OF MARITIME ENTERPRISE.
1114 INDIVIDUALISM.
1115 THE REFORMATION.
1116 DECOMPOSITION OF PROTESTANTISM.
1117 TOLERATION.
1118 DA VINCI.
1119 ITALIAN SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES.
1120 INTELLECTUAL INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE.
1121 THEORIES OF GRAVITATION AND PHLOGISTON.
1122 SCIENCE AND ECCLESIASTICISM.
1123 MATHEMATICS.
1124 THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.
1125 INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE.
1126 THE ECONOMICAL INFLUENCES OF SGENCE.
1127 SCIENTIFIC INVENTIONS.
1128 DOMESTIC IMPROVEMENT.
1129 MUNICIPAL IMPROVEMENTS.
1130 MERCANTILE INVENTIONS.
1131 MEDICAL IMPROVEMENTS.
1132 MAGIC AND MIRACLES.
1133 DISCOVERIES IN ASTRONOMY AND CHEMISTRY.
1134 INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES.
1135 AMERICAN AND FRENCH REVOLUTIONS.
1136 SCIENCE AND CIVILIZATION.

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1101 THE INTRODUCTION OF SCIENCE INTO EUROPE.-It

1102 THE INTELLECTUAL INFLUENCE OF SQENCE.-It

1103 THE ECONOMICAL INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE

1104 EUROPE,

1105 SCIENCE AND CIVILIZATION.

1106 KNOWLEDGE IS POWER.

1107 ILLUSTRATIONS FROM AMERICAN HISTORY.

1108 QUARREL BETWEEN FRANCE AND THE PAPACY.

1109 INTRODUCTION OF SCIENCE INTO EUROPE.

1110 MOORISH SCIENCE INTRODUCED THROUGH FRANCE.

1111 EFFECT OF THE GREAT SCHISM.

1112 INVENTION OF PRINTING.

1113 EFFECTS OF MARITIME ENTERPRISE.

1114 INDIVIDUALISM.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 175 2059
There were some preliminary skirmishes about indulgences and other minor matters, but very soon the real cause of dispute came plainly into view. Martin Luther refused to think as he was ordered to do by his ecclesiastical superiors at Rome; he asser...

1115 THE REFORMATION.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 176 2071
vulgar saying among the Roman ecclesiastics that Erasmus laid the egg of the Reformation, and Luther hatched it.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 176 2071
taught them that there was a higher power than the popes. The long and bloody wars that ensued were closed by the Peace of Westphalia; and then it was found that Central and Northern Europe had cast off the intellectual tyranny of Rome, that individu...

1116 DECOMPOSITION OF PROTESTANTISM.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 177 2083
History teaches us only too plainly that fanaticism is stimulated by religion, and neutralized or eradicated by philosophy.

1117 TOLERATION.

1118 DA VINCI.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 177 2083
Leonardo da Vinci, who proclaimed the fundamental principle that experiment and of interpreter of Nature, and is essential to the ascertainmen... foundations of reasoning in science, that experiment is the only trustworthy

1119 ITALIAN SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES.

1120 INTELLECTUAL INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 178 2095
The influence of science on modern civilization has been twofold: 1. Intellectual; 2. Economical.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 179 2106
Royal Society of London, illustrate the position it took in this respect. It rejected the supernatural and miraculous as evidence in physical discussions.

1121 THEORIES OF GRAVITATION AND PHLOGISTON.

1122 SCIENCE AND ECCLESIASTICISM.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 180 2118
Authority and tradition pass for nothing. Every thing is settled by an appeal to Nature ers she gives to a practical interrogation will ever be true.

1123 MATHEMATICS.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 181 2130
To the Arabians we owe our knowledge of the rudiments of algebra; we owe to them the very name under which this branch of mathematics passes.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 181 2130
In 1496 Paccioli published his book entitled "Arte Maggiore," or "Alghebra." In 1501, Cardan, of Milan, gave a method for the solution of cubic equations; other improvements were contributed by Scipio Ferreo, 1508, by Tartalea, by Vieta. The Germans ...

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 182 2142
Napier died in 1617. It is no exaggeration to say that this invention, by shortening the labors, doubled the life of the astronomer.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 182 2142
When the Royal Society of London was founded, theological odium was directed against it with so much rancor that, doubtless, it would have been extinguished, had not King Charles II. given it his open and avowed support. It was accused of an intentio...

1124 THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.

1125 INFLUENCE OF SCIENCE.

1126 THE ECONOMICAL INFLUENCES OF SGENCE.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 184 2165
application of a new principle, or the invention of a new machine, was better than the acquisition of an additional slave,

1127 SCIENTIFIC INVENTIONS.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 185 2177
Chance had nothing to do with the invention of the modern steam-engine. It was the product of meditation and experiment.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 185 2177
St. Polycarp significantly remarked, "In all these monstrous demons is seen an art ho

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 185 2177
1680 did the chronometer begin to approach accuracy.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 186 2189
To the invention of the chronometer must be added that of the reflecting sextant by Godfrey. This permitted astronomical observations to be made, notwithstanding the motion of a ship.

1128 DOMESTIC IMPROVEMENT.

1129 MUNICIPAL IMPROVEMENTS.

1130 MERCANTILE INVENTIONS.

1131 MEDICAL IMPROVEMENTS.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 188 2212
The different kinds of insurance were adopted, though strenuously resisted by the clergy. They opposed fire and marine insurance, on the ground that it is a tempting of Providence. Life insurance was regarded as an act of interference with the conseq...

1132 MAGIC AND MIRACLES.

1133 DISCOVERIES IN ASTRONOMY AND CHEMISTRY.

1134 INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES.

1135 AMERICAN AND FRENCH REVOLUTIONS.

1136 SCIENCE AND CIVILIZATION.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 193 2271
The maxims that have been followed in the earlier and the later period produced their inevitable result. In the former that maxim was, "Ignorance is the mother of Devotion in the latter, "Knowledge is Power."

12 THE IMPENDING CRISIS.


1201 PREDOMINANCE OF CATHOLICITY.
1202 Page 195 - THE OECUMENICAL COUNCIL
1203 EXPECTATIONS OF THE PAPACY.

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1201 PREDOMINANCE OF CATHOLICITY.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 195 2295
principle is that all power is in the clergy, and that for laymen there is only the privilege of obedience.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 195 2295
Church asserts that the divine commission under which it acts comprises civil government; that it has a right to use the state for its own purposes, but that the state has no right to intermeddle with it;

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 195 2295
Unembarrassed by any hesitating sentiment, the papacy has contemplated the coming intellectual crisis. It has pronounced its decision, and occupied what seems to it to be the most advantageous ground.

1202 Page 195 - THE OECUMENICAL COUNCIL

1203 EXPECTATIONS OF THE PAPACY.

13 ENCYCLICAL LETTER AND SYLLABUS.


1301 ENCYCLICAL LETTER AND SYLLABUS.
1302 CONVOCATION OF THE COUNCIL.
1303 THE VATICAN COUNCIL.
1304 INFALLIBILITY OF THE POPE.
1305 THE ITALIAN GOVERNMENT.
1306 AFFAIRS IN PRUSSIA.
1307 ACTION OF THE PRUSSIAN GOVERNMENT.
1308 THE CHURCH A POLITICAL POWER.
1309 DUAL GOVERNMENT IN EUROPE.
1310 INTENTIONS OF THE POPE.
1311 THE SYLLABUS.
1312 CONSTITUTION OF CATHOLIC FAITH.
1313 "OF GOD, THE CREATOR OF ALL THINGS.
1314 "OF REVELATION.
1315 "OF FAITH.
1316 THE VATICAN ANATHEMAS.
1317 THE EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE.
1318 THE VATICAN CONSTITUTION CRITICISED.
1319 THE PASSAGE OF EUROPE TO LLAMAISM.
1320 THE ERRORS OF ECCLESIASTICISM.
1321 SEPARATION OF CATHOLICISM AND CIVILIZATION.
1322 SCIENCE AND PROTESTANTISM.
1323 SCIENCE AND FAITH.
1324 CIVILIZATION AND RELIGION.
1325 INADMISSIBLE CLAIMS OF CATHOLICISM.
1326 ISSUE OF THE CONFLICT.

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1301 ENCYCLICAL LETTER AND SYLLABUS.

1302 CONVOCATION OF THE COUNCIL.

1303 THE VATICAN COUNCIL.

1304 INFALLIBILITY OF THE POPE.

1305 THE ITALIAN GOVERNMENT.

1306 AFFAIRS IN PRUSSIA.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 201 2365
It is plainly impossible for men to live under two governments, one of which declares to be wrong what the other commands.

1307 ACTION OF THE PRUSSIAN GOVERNMENT.

1308 THE CHURCH A POLITICAL POWER.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 202 2377
that the Church alone has a right to fix the limits between its domain and that of the state--a dangerous and inadmissible

1309 DUAL GOVERNMENT IN EUROPE.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 203 2389
wishes to be the leader of Europe, on the other she clings to a dead past. For

1310 INTENTIONS OF THE POPE.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 203 2389
In America the temporal

1311 THE SYLLABUS.

1312 CONSTITUTION OF CATHOLIC FAITH.

1313 "OF GOD, THE CREATOR OF ALL THINGS.

1314 "OF REVELATION.

1315 "OF FAITH.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 205 2412
God willed to join miracles and Catholic Apostolic Roman the one we know by natural reason, in the other by divine faith;

1316 THE VATICAN ANATHEMAS.

1317 THE EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE.

1318 THE VATICAN CONSTITUTION CRITICISED.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 210 2471
Widif: "God forceth not a man to believe that which he cannot understand."

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 210 2471
One of the most striking and vet contradictory features of the Dogmatic

1319 THE PASSAGE OF EUROPE TO LLAMAISM.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 212 2495
doctrines of Evolution and Development, bluntly insisting that the Church believes in distinct creative acts. The doctrine that

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 212 2495
Gregory XVI. denounced freedom of conscience as an insane

1320 THE ERRORS OF ECCLESIASTICISM.

1321 SEPARATION OF CATHOLICISM AND CIVILIZATION.

1322 SCIENCE AND PROTESTANTISM.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 214 2518
Then has it in truth come to this, that Roman Christianity and Science are recognized by their respective adherents as being absolutely incompatible; they cannot exist together; one must yield to the other; mankind must make its choice--it cannot hav...

1323 SCIENCE AND FAITH.

1324 CIVILIZATION AND RELIGION.

1325 INADMISSIBLE CLAIMS OF CATHOLICISM.

1326 ISSUE OF THE CONFLICT.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 217 2554
Faith must render an account of herself to Reason. Mysteries must give place to facts.

William Draper: History of the Conflict Between Religion and Science, 217 2554
There must be absolute freedom for thought. The ecclesiastic must learn to keep himself within the domain he has chosen, and cease to tyrannize over the philosopher, who, conscious of his own strength and the purity of his motives, will bear such interference no longer. What

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Victor Hugo: Han d'Islande, 156 4195
sur la face où Schoenning avait découvert les caractères runiques primordiaux?~je

Victor Hugo: Han d'Islande, 157 4208
-Écoutez, vieillard, vous pourrez vous fixer au bord de ce lac, et vous livrer à votre aise à vos importantes études, quand vous aurez reçu les mille écus royaux que vous rapportera la tête de Han. -•Vous

Victor Hugo: Han d'Islande, 157 4217
le brigand porte à sa ceinture un crâne dans lequel il a coutume de boire. Ce

Victor Hugo: Han d'Islande, 157 4217
crâne de son fils, dont le cadavre est celui pour la profanation duquel je suis poursuivi.

Victor Hugo: Han d'Islande, 157 4221
-Cest de ce crâne, dit Spiagudry en se penchant à l'oreille du jeune homme, qu'il faut tâcher de vous emparer. Le

Victor Hugo: Han d'Islande, 158 4248
lumière que Batdan, sire de Merneugh, prit le rideau blanc de son lit pour l'ombre de sa mère; ce

Victor Hugo: Han d'Islande, 159 4256
faîte des ruines, que

Victor Hugo: Han d'Islande, 159 4264
forteresse à créneaux d'un sire chrétien; près

Victor Hugo: Han d'Islande, 159 4280
chiens de mer, [Footnote: Les chiens de mer sont redoutés des pêcheurs, parce qu'ils effraient les poissons.] ils

Victor Hugo: Han d'Islande, 161 4318
Norvège qu'un seul homme dont les yeux rayonnent ainsi dans les ténèbres?

Victor Hugo: Han d'Islande, 163 4373
-Qu'est-ce donc qui résonne ainsi dans ce havre-sac? demanda Location

Victor Hugo: Han d'Islande, 163 4385
Vous verrez le fanal de Munckholm entre les deux Escabelles de Frigge, au midi.

Victor Hugo: Han d'Islande, 165 4420
-Cette cassette t'aura sauvé, ajouta-t-il avec un affreux sourire ironique. Spiagudry! est-ce ici le chemin de Thoctree?

Victor Hugo: Han d'Islande, 165 4441
toit du Spladgest quand

Victor Hugo: Han d'Islande, 166 4443
tour de Vygla; c’est

Victor Hugo: Han d'Islande, 171 4597
jarl ou d'un hersa? [Footnote: Les anciens seigneurs en Norvège, avant que Griffenfeld fondât une noblesse régulière, portaient les titres de hersa (baron), ou jarl (comte). Cest de ce dernier mot qu'est formé le mot anglais earl (comte).]

01 END

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5 Adam Smith:
Wealth of Nations


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41 I OF THE CAUSES OF IMPROVEMENT IN THE PRODUCTIVE POWERS OF LABOUR, AND OF THE ORDER ACCORDING TO WHICH ITS PRODUCE IS NATURALLY DISTRIBUTED AMONG THE DIFFERENT RANKS OF THE PEOPLE.
1052 II OF THE NATURE, ACCUMULATION, AND EMPLOYMENT OF STOCK.
1423 III OF THE DIFFERENT PROGRESS OF OPULENCE IN DIFFERENT NATIONS
1574 IV OF SYSTEMS OF POLITICAL ECONOMY Political
2575 V OF THE REVENUE OF THE SOVEREIGN OR COMMONWEALTH
354pages

2001 INTRODUCTION AND PLAN OF THE WORK
4pages

01 INTRODUCTION AND PLAN OF THE WORK

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1 BOOK I OF THE CAUSES OF IMPROVEMENT IN THE PRODUCTIVE POWERS OF LABOUR, AND OF THE ORDER ACCORDING TO WHICH ITS PRODUCE IS NATURALLY DISTRIBUTED AMONG THE DIFFERENT RANKS OF THE PEOPLE.

4101 CHAPTER I OF THE DIVISION OF LABOUR The
7102 CHAPTER II OF THE PRINCIPLE WHICH GIVES OCCASION TO THE DIVISION OF LABOUR
9103 CHAPTER III THAT THE DIVISION OF LABOUR IS LIMITED BY THE EXTENT OF THE MARKET
11104 CHAPTER IV OF THE ORIGIN AND USE OF MONEY.
13105 CHAPTER V OF THE REAL AND NOMINAL PRICE OF COMMODITIES, OR OF THEIR PRICE IN LABOUR, AND THEIR PRICE IN MONEY
19106 CHAPTER VI OF THE COMPONENT PART OF THE PRICE OF COMMODITIES
22107 CHAPTER VII OF THE NATURAL AND MARKET PRICE OF COMMODITIES
25108 CHAPTER VIII OF THE WAGES OF LABOUR
34109 CHAPTER IX OF THE PROFITS OF STOCK The rise and fall in the profits of stock depend upon the same causes with the rise and fall in the wages of labour, the increasing or declining state of the wealth of the society; but those causes affect the one an...
38110 CHAPTER X OF WAGES AND PROFIT IN THE DIFFERENT EMPLOYMENTS OF LABOUR AND STOCK The
55111 CHAPTER XI OF THE RENT OF LAND.
100112 PRICES OF THE QUARTER OF NINE BUSHELS OF THE BEST OR HIGHEST PRICED WHEAT AT WINDSOR MARKET, ON LADY DAY AND MICHAELMAS, FROM 1595 TO 1764 BOTH INCLUSIVE; THE PRICE OF EACH YEAR BEING THE MEDIUM BETWEEN THE HIGHEST PRICES OF THESE TWO MARKET DAYS. ...
105pages

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01 CHAPTER I OF THE DIVISION OF LABOUR The

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02 CHAPTER II OF THE PRINCIPLE WHICH GIVES OCCASION TO THE DIVISION OF LABOUR

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03 CHAPTER III THAT THE DIVISION OF LABOUR IS LIMITED BY THE EXTENT OF THE MARKET

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04 CHAPTER IV OF THE ORIGIN AND USE OF MONEY.

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05 CHAPTER V OF THE REAL AND NOMINAL PRICE OF COMMODITIES, OR OF THEIR PRICE IN LABOUR, AND THEIR PRICE IN MONEY

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06 CHAPTER VI OF THE COMPONENT PART OF THE PRICE OF COMMODITIES

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07 CHAPTER VII OF THE NATURAL AND MARKET PRICE OF COMMODITIES

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Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 25 1121
The monopolists, by keeping the market constantly understocked by never fully supplying the effectual demand, sell their commodities much above the natural price, and raise their emoluments, whether they consist in wages or profit, greatly above thei...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 25 1148
The natural price itself varies with the natural rate of each of its component parts, of wages, profit, and rent; and in every society this rate varies according to their circumstances, according to their riches or poverty, their advancing, stationar...

08 CHAPTER VIII OF THE WAGES OF LABOUR

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Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 26 1177
The produce of labour constitutes the natural recompence or wages of labour.

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 33 1516
Messance, receiver of the taillies in the election of St Etienne, endeavours to shew that the poor do more work in cheap than in dear years, by comparing the quantity and value of the goods made upon those different occasions in three different manuf...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 33 1535
The produce of their labour, therefore, frequently makes no figure in those public registers, of which the records are sometimes published with so much parade, and from which our merchants and manufacturers would often vainly pretend to announce the ...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 34 1558
The increase in the wages of labour necessarily increases the price of many commodities, by increasing that part of it which resolves itself into wages, and so far tends to diminish their consumption, both

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 34 1560
The same cause, however, which raises the wages of labour, the increase of stock, tends to increase its productive powers, and to make a smaller quantity of labour produce a greater quantity of work. The

09 CHAPTER IX OF THE PROFITS OF STOCK The rise and fall in the profits of stock depend upon the same causes with the rise and fall in the wages of labour, the increasing or declining state of the wealth of the society; but those causes affect the one an...

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10 CHAPTER X OF WAGES AND PROFIT IN THE DIFFERENT EMPLOYMENTS OF LABOUR AND STOCK The


1001 PART I Inequalities arising from the nature of the employments themselves. The landlord acting the part of a monopolist
1002 PART II Inequalities occasioned by the Policy of Europe. Such

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1001 PART I Inequalities arising from the nature of the employments themselves. The landlord acting the part of a monopolist

1002 PART II Inequalities occasioned by the Policy of Europe. Such

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 48 2253
Half-a-dozen wool-combers, perhaps, are necessary to keep a thousand spinners and weavers at work. By

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 51 2374
Before the invention of the art of printing, a scholar and a beggar seem to have been terms very nearly synonymous. The different governors of the universities, before that time, appear to have often granted licences to their scholars to beg. In

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 54 2504
The very unequal price of labour which we frequently find in England, in places at no great distance from one another, is probably owing to the obstruction which the law of settlements gives to a poor man who would carry his industry from one parish...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 54 2514
To remove a man who has committed no misdemeanour, from the parish where he chooses to reside, is an evident violation of natural liberty and justice. The

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 54 2519
There is scarce a poor man in England, of forty years of age, I will venture to say, who has not, in some part of his life, felt himself most cruelly oppressed by this ill-contrived law of settlements. I

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 54 2525
if all persons in the same kind of work were to receive equal wages, there would be no emulation, and no room left for industry or ingenuity.” Particular

11 CHAPTER XI OF THE RENT OF LAND.


1101 PART I Of the Produce of Land which always affords Rent.
1102 PART II Of the Produce of Land, which sometimes does, and sometimes does not, afford Rent Human food seems to be the only produce of land, which always and necessarily affords some rent to the landlord. Other sorts of produce sometimes may, and somet...
1103 Conclusion of the Chapter. I

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1101 PART I Of the Produce of Land which always affords Rent.

1102 PART II Of the Produce of Land, which sometimes does, and sometimes does not, afford Rent Human food seems to be the only produce of land, which always and necessarily affords some rent to the landlord. Other sorts of produce sometimes may, and somet...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 63 2971
if coals can conveniently be had for fuel, it may sometimes be cheaper to bring barren timber for building from less cultivated foreign countries than to raise it at home. In the new town of Edinburgh, built within these few years, there is not, perh...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 64 3001
The price, therefore, of the coarse, and still more that of the precious metals, at the most fertile mines in the world, must necessarily more or less affect their price at every other in it. The

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 65 3061
The demand for those metals arises partly from their utility, and partly from their beauty.

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 65 3068
the merit of an object, which is in any degree either useful or beautiful, is greatly enhanced by its scarcity, or

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 65 3070
These qualities of utility, beauty, and scarcity, are the original foundation of the high price of those metals, or

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 66 3091
A service of plate, and the other frivolous ornaments of dress and furniture, could be purchased for a smaller quantity of commodities; and in this would consist the sole advantage which the world could derive from that abundance. It

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 66 3107
They gave them to their new guests at the first request, without seeming to think that they had made them any very valuable present. They were astonished to observe the rage of the Spaniards to obtain them;

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 66 3114
PART III Of the variations in the Proportion between the respective Values of that sort of Produce which always affords Rent, and of that which sometimes does, and sometimes does not, afford Rent. The

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 84 3937
Though all the cattle of the European colonies in America were originally carried from Europe, they soon multiplied so much there, and became of so little value, that even horses were allowed to run wild in the woods, without any owner thinking it wo...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 84 3942
Mr Kalm, the Swedish traveller, when he gives an account of the husbandry of some of the English colonies in North America, as he found it in 1749, observes, accordingly, that he can with difficulty discover there the character of the English nation,...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 84 3948
{Kalm’s Travels, vol 1, pp. 343, 344.}

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 86 4036
Gain is the end of all improvement; and nothing could deserve that name, of which loss was to be the necessary consequence. But

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 86 4069
it happens almost constantly in Chili, at Buenos Ayres, and in many other parts of Spanish America, where the horned cattle are almost constantly killed merely for the sake of the hide and the tallow. This,

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 88 4154
The wool of Scotland fell very considerably in its price in consequence of the union with England, by which it was excluded from the great market of Europe, and confined to the narrow one of Great Britain. The

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 90 4218
Conclusion of the Digression concerning the Variations in the Value of Silver. The

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 91 4272
As to the high price of corn during these last ten or twelve years, it can be sufficiently accounted for from the badness of the seasons, without supposing any degradation in the value of silver. The

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 92 4331
It has, however, been sufficient to astonish the workmen of every other part of Europe, who in many cases acknowledge that they can produce no work of equal goodness for double or even for triple the price. There

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 92 4342
present times with what it was in a much remoter period, towards the end of the fifteenth century, when the labour was probably much less subdivided, and the machinery employed much more imperfect, than it is at present. In

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 93 4371
In the time of Edward IV. the art of knitting stockings was probably not known in any part of Europe. Their hose were made of common doth, which may have been one of the causes of their dearness. The

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 93 4372
The first person that wore stockings in England is said to have been Queen Elizabeth. She received them as a present from the Spanish ambassador. Both

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 93 4394
This duty, indeed, would not probably be very great. It was not then the policy of Europe to restrain, by high duties, the importation of foreign manufactures, but rather to encourage it, in

1103 Conclusion of the Chapter. I

12 PRICES OF THE QUARTER OF NINE BUSHELS OF THE BEST OR HIGHEST PRICED WHEAT AT WINDSOR MARKET, ON LADY DAY AND MICHAELMAS, FROM 1595 TO 1764 BOTH INCLUSIVE; THE PRICE OF EACH YEAR BEING THE MEDIUM BETWEEN THE HIGHEST PRICES OF THESE TWO MARKET DAYS. ...

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2 BOOK II OF THE NATURE, ACCUMULATION, AND EMPLOYMENT OF STOCK.

105201 INTRODUCTION
105202 CHAPTER I OF THE DIVISION OF STOCK.
108203 CHAPTER II OF MONEY, CONSIDERED AS A PARTICULAR BRANCH OF THE GENERAL STOCK OF THE SOCIETY, OR OF THE EXPENSE OF MAINTAINING THE NATIONAL CAPITAL. It
126204 CHAPTER III OF THE ACCUMULATION OF CAPITAL, OR OF PRODUCTIVE AND UNPRODUCTIVE LABOUR There
136205 CHAPTER V OF THE DIFFERENT EMPLOYMENTS OF CAPITALS. Though
142pages

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01 INTRODUCTION

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Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 105 4938
But when the division of labour has once been thoroughly introduced, the produce of a man's own labour can supply but a very small part of his occasional wants. The far greater part of them are supplied by the produce of other men's labour, which he ...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 105 4941
But this purchase cannot be made till such time as the produce of his own labour has not only been completed, but sold.

02 CHAPTER I OF THE DIVISION OF STOCK.

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03 CHAPTER II OF MONEY, CONSIDERED AS A PARTICULAR BRANCH OF THE GENERAL STOCK OF THE SOCIETY, OR OF THE EXPENSE OF MAINTAINING THE NATIONAL CAPITAL. It

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Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 121 5729
The Bank of England is the greatest bank of circulation in Europe. It was incorporated, in pursuance of an act of parliament, by a charter under the great seal, dated the 27th of July 1694. It

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 122 5779
The gold and silver money which circulates in any country may very properly be compared to a highway, which, while it circulates and carries to market all the grass and corn of the country, produces itself not a single pile of either. The

04 CHAPTER III OF THE ACCUMULATION OF CAPITAL, OR OF PRODUCTIVE AND UNPRODUCTIVE LABOUR There

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Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 128 6069
Whatever a person saves from his revenue he adds to his capital, and either employs it himself in maintaining an additional number of productive hands, or enables some other person to do so, by lending it to him for an interest, that is, for a share ...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 133 6282
CHAPTER IV OF STOCK LENT AT INTEREST. The

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 133 6297
Even among borrowers, therefore, not the people in the world most famous for frugality, the number of the frugal and industrious surpasses considerably that of the prodigal and idle. The

05 CHAPTER V OF THE DIFFERENT EMPLOYMENTS OF CAPITALS. Though

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3 BOOK III OF THE DIFFERENT PROGRESS OF OPULENCE IN DIFFERENT NATIONS

142301 CHAPTER I OF THE NATURAL PROGRESS OF OPULENCE. The
144302 CHAPTER II OF THE DISCOURAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN THE ANCIENT STATE OF EUROPE, AFTER THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.
148303 CHAPTER III OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF CITIES AND TOWNS, AFTER THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.
152304 CHAPTER IV HOW THE COMMERCE OF TOWNS CONTRIBUTED TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE COUNTRY.
157pages

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01 CHAPTER I OF THE NATURAL PROGRESS OF OPULENCE. The

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02 CHAPTER II OF THE DISCOURAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN THE ANCIENT STATE OF EUROPE, AFTER THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

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03 CHAPTER III OF THE RISE AND PROGRESS OF CITIES AND TOWNS, AFTER THE FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.

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04 CHAPTER IV HOW THE COMMERCE OF TOWNS CONTRIBUTED TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE COUNTRY.

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Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 152 7198
The increase and riches of commercial and manufacturing towns contributed to the improvement and cultivation of the countries to which they belonged, in three different ways: First,

4 BOOK IV OF SYSTEMS OF POLITICAL ECONOMY Political

157401 CHAPTER I OF THE PRINCIPLE OF THE COMMERCIAL OR MERCANTILE SYSTEM.
165402 CHAPTER II OF RESTRAINTS UPON IMPORTATION FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES OF SUCH GOODS AS CAN BE PRODUCED AT HOME.
173403 CHAPTER III OF THE EXTRAORDINARY RESTRAINTS UPON THE IMPORTATION OF GOODS OF ALMOST ALL KINDS, FROM THOSE COUNTRIES WITH WHICH THE BALANCE IS SUPPOSED TO BE DISADVANTAGEOUS. Part
183404 CHAPTER IV OF DRAWBACKS.
185405 CHAPTER V OF BOUNTIES.
200406 CHAPTER VI OF TREATIES OF COMMERCE.
204407 CHAPTER VII OF COLONIES PART
237408 CHAPTER VIII CONCLUSION OF THE MERCANTILE SYSTEM.
244409 CHAPTER IX OF THE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS, OR OF THOSE SYSTEMS OF POLITICAL ECONOMY WHICH REPRESENT THE PRODUCE OF LAND, AS EITHER THE SOLE OR THE PRINCIPAL SOURCE OF THE REVENUE AND WEALTH OF EVERY COUNTRY. The
254410 APPENDIX TO BOOK IV The
257pages

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01 CHAPTER I OF THE PRINCIPLE OF THE COMMERCIAL OR MERCANTILE SYSTEM.

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Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 159 7532
That a country that has wherewithal to buy gold and silver, will never be in want of those metals. They are to be bought for a certain price, like all other commodities; and as they are the price of all other commodities, so all other commodities are the ...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 161 7603
The one may frequently have done the whole, but the other can never have done more than the one half of his business. It is not for its own sake that men desire money, but for the sake of what they can purchase with it. Consumable

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 161 7616
the quantity of coin in every country is regulated by the value of the commodities which are to be circulated by it; increase

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 161 7620
that to attempt to increase the wealth of any country, either by introducing or by detaining in it an unnecessary quantity of gold and silver, is as absurd as it would be to attempt to increase the good cheer of private families, by obliging them to...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 161 7624
Gold and silver, whether in the shape of coin or of plate, are utensils, it must be remembered, as much as the furniture of the kitchen. Increase

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 161 7631
Fleets and armies are maintained, not with gold and silver, but with consumable goods.

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 162 7681
This bullion, as it circulates among different commercial countries, in the same manner as the national coin circulates in every country, may be considered as the money of the great mercantile republic The

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 163 7726
Every Tartar chief, accordingly, has a treasure. The treasures of Mazepa, chief of the Cossacks in the Ukraine, the famous ally of Charles XII., are said to have been very great. The

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 164 7754
So that there may be in Europe at present, not only more than three times, but more than twenty or thirty times the quantity of plate which would have been in it, even in its present state of improvement, had the discovery of the American mines never...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 164 7768
There were but two nations in America, in any respect, superior to the savages, and these were destroyed almost as soon as discovered. The rest were mere savages. But the empires of China, Indostan, Japan, as well as several others in the East Indies...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 165 7801
it necessarily became the great object of political economy to diminish as much as possible the importation of foreign goods for home consumption, and to increase as much as possible the exportation of the produce of domestic industry. Its two great...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 165 7803
The restraints upon importation were of two kinds. First, restraints upon the importation of such foreign goods for home consumption as could be produced at home, from whatever country they were imported. Secondly, restraints upon the importation of...

02 CHAPTER II OF RESTRAINTS UPON IMPORTATION FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES OF SUCH GOODS AS CAN BE PRODUCED AT HOME.

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Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 168 7958
Fat cattle could not be drove so far. Lean cattle, therefore, could only be imported; and such importation could interfere not with the interest of the feeding or fattening countries, to which, by reducing the price of lean cattle it would rather be ...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 168 7969
The freest importation of foreign cattle could have no other effect than to hinder those breeding countries from taking advantage of the increasing population and improvement of the rest of the kingdom, from raising their price to an exorbitant heigh...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 172 8120
Were those high duties and prohibitions taken away all at once, cheaper foreign goods of the same kind might be poured so fast into the home market, as to deprive all at once many thousands of our people of their ordinary employment and means of subs...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 172 8137
Not only no great convulsion, but no sensible disorder, arose from so great a change in the situation of more than 100,000 men, all accustomed to the use of arms, and many of them to rapine and plunder. The

03 CHAPTER III OF THE EXTRAORDINARY RESTRAINTS UPON THE IMPORTATION OF GOODS OF ALMOST ALL KINDS, FROM THOSE COUNTRIES WITH WHICH THE BALANCE IS SUPPOSED TO BE DISADVANTAGEOUS. Part


0301 Part I Of the Unreasonableness of those Restraints, even upon the Principles of the Commercial System.
0302 PART II Of the Unreasonableness of those extraordinary Restraints, upon other Principles.

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0301 Part I Of the Unreasonableness of those Restraints, even upon the Principles of the Commercial System.

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 176 8323
Bank money, over and above both its intrinsic superiority to currency, and the additional value which this demand necessarily gives it, has likewise some other advantages. It is secure from fire, robbery, and other accidents; the city of Amsterdam is...

0302 PART II Of the Unreasonableness of those extraordinary Restraints, upon other Principles.

04 CHAPTER IV OF DRAWBACKS.

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05 CHAPTER V OF BOUNTIES.

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06 CHAPTER VI OF TREATIES OF COMMERCE.

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07 CHAPTER VII OF COLONIES PART


0701 PART I Of the Motives for Establishing New Colonies.
0702 PART II Causes of the Prosperity of New Colonies. The colony of a civilized nation which takas possession either of a waste country, or of one so thinly inhabited that the natives easily give place to the new settlers, advances more rapidly to wealth...
0703 PART III Of the Advantages which Europe has derived From the Discovery of America, and from that of a Passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope.

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0701 PART I Of the Motives for Establishing New Colonies.

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 204 9674
The interest which occasioned the first settlement of the different European colonies in America and the West Indies, was not altogether so plain and distinct as that which directed the establishment of those of ancient Greece and Rome.

0702 PART II Causes of the Prosperity of New Colonies. The colony of a civilized nation which takas possession either of a waste country, or of one so thinly inhabited that the natives easily give place to the new settlers, advances more rapidly to wealth...

0703 PART III Of the Advantages which Europe has derived From the Discovery of America, and from that of a Passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope.

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 217 10299
Such are the advantages which the colonies of America have derived from the policy of Europe.

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 226 10702
All the original sources of revenue, the wages of labour, the rent of land, and the profits of stock, the monopoly renders much less abundant than they otherwise would be. To promote the little interest of one little order of men in one country, it h...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 226 10714
Accumulation is thus prevented in the hands of all those who are naturally the most disposed to accumulate; and the funds destined for the maintenance of productive labour, receive no augmentation from the revenue of those who ought naturally to augm...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 226 10717
Have the exorbitant profits of the merchants of Cadiz and Lisbon augmented the capital of Spain and Portugal? Have they alleviated the poverty, have they promoted the industry, of those two beggarly countries? Such

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 227 10771
Under the present system of management, therefore, Great Britain derives nothing but loss from the dominion which she assumes over her colonies. To

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 227 10772
To propose that Great Britain should voluntarily give up all authority over her colonies, and leave them to elect their own magistrates, to enact their own laws, and to make peace and war, as they might think proper, would be to propose such a measur...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 228 10797
But this monopoly, I have endeavoured to show, though a very grievous tax upon the colonies, and though it may increase the revenue of a particular order of men in Great Britain, diminishes, instead of increasing, that of the great body of the people...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 231 10933
The discovery of America, and that of a passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope, are the two greatest and most important events recorded in the history of mankind. Their

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 233 11049
Such poor countries as Sweden and Denmark, for example, would probably have never sent a single ship to the East Indies, had not the trade been subjected to an exclusive company. The

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 233 11049
Such a rich country as Holland, on the contrary, would probably, in the case of a free trade, send many more ships to the East Indies than it actually does. The

08 CHAPTER VIII CONCLUSION OF THE MERCANTILE SYSTEM.

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Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 237 11257
industry of the flax-growers and flaxdressers, three or four spinners at least are necessary in order to keep one weaver in constant employment; and

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 239 11310
When this last bounty was granted, the British and Irish legislatures were not in much better humour with one another, than the British and American had been before. But

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 239 11329
By the 8th of Elizabeth, chap. 3, the exporter of sheep, lambs, or rams, was for the first offence, to forfeit all his goods for ever, to suffer a year's imprisonment, and then to have his left hand cut off in a market town, upon a market day, to be ...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 240 11390
Fine cloth is made altogether of Spanish wool. English wool, cannot be even so mixed with Spanish wool, as to enter into the composition without spoiling and degrading, in some degree, the fabric of the cloth. It

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 241 11403
He expects his profit, not so much from the price of the fleece, as from that of the carcase; and the average or ordinary price of the latter must even, in many cases, make up to him whatever deficiency there may be in the average or ordinary price o...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 244 11553
Consumption is the sole end and purpose of all production; and the interest of the producer ought to be attended to, only so far as it may be necessary for promoting that of the consumer. The

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 244 11555
The maxim is so perfectly self-evident, that it would be absurd to attempt to prove it. But in the mercantile system, the interest of the consumer is almost constantly sacrificed to that of the producer; and it seems to consider production, and not c...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 244 11579
It cannot be very difficult to determine who have been the contrivers of this whole mercantile system; not the consumers, we may believe, whose interest has been entirely neglected; but the producers, whose interest has been so carefully attended to;...

09 CHAPTER IX OF THE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS, OR OF THOSE SYSTEMS OF POLITICAL ECONOMY WHICH REPRESENT THE PRODUCE OF LAND, AS EITHER THE SOLE OR THE PRINCIPAL SOURCE OF THE REVENUE AND WEALTH OF EVERY COUNTRY. The

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Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 244 11588
The agricultural systems of political economy will not require so long an explanation as that which I have thought it necessary to bestow upon the mercantile or commercial system. That

10 APPENDIX TO BOOK IV The

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5 BOOK V OF THE REVENUE OF THE SOVEREIGN OR COMMONWEALTH

257501 CHAPTER I OF THE EXPENSES OF THE SOVEREIGN OR COMMONWEALTH.
302502 CHAPTER II OF THE SOURCES OF THE GENERAL OR PUBLIC REVENUE OF THE SOCIETY. The
315503 ARTICLE II.—Taxes upon Profit, or upon the Revenue arising from Stock. The revenue
319504 APPENDIX TO ARTICLES I. AND II. Taxes upon the Capital Value of Lands, Houses, and Stock.
319505 APPENDIX TO ARTICLES I. AND II. Taxes upon the Capital Value of Lands, Houses, and Stock. While
321506 ARTICLE III.---Taxes upon the Wages of Labour.
339507 CHAPTER III OF PUBLIC DEBTS.
354pages

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01 CHAPTER I OF THE EXPENSES OF THE SOVEREIGN OR COMMONWEALTH.


0101 PART I Of the Expense of Defence. The
0102 PART II Of the Expense of Justice The
0103 PART III Of the Expense of public Works and public Institutions.
0104 PART IV Of the Expense of supporting the Dignity of the Sovereign.
0105 CONCLUSION

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0101 PART I Of the Expense of Defence. The

0102 PART II Of the Expense of Justice The

0103 PART III Of the Expense of public Works and public Institutions.

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 283 13432
The discipline of the college, at the same time, may enable him to force all his pupils to the most regular attendance upon his sham lecture, and to maintain the most decent and respectful behaviour during the whole time of the performance. The

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 284 13471
Two different languages were thus established in Europe, in the same manner as in ancient Egypt: a language of the priests, and a language of the people; a sacred and a profane, a learned and an unlearned language. But

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 284 13476
Latin translation of the Bible, commonly called the Latin Vulgate, to have been equally dictated by divine inspiration, and therefore of equal authority with the Greek and Hebrew originals. The

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 297 14067
and gentlemen had frequently no other means of subsistence than by travelling about from monastery to monastery, under pretence of devotion, but in reality to enjoy the hospitality of the clergy. The

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 297 14069
There was always much more union among the clergy than among the lay-lords. The former were under a regular discipline and subordination to the papal authority. The

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 297 14089
the constitution of the church of Rome may be considered as the most formidable combination that ever was formed against the authority and security of civil government, as

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 297 14110
and even that spiritual authority was much weakened, when it ceased to be supported by the charity and hospitality of the clergy. The inferior ranks of people no longer looked upon that order as they had done before; as the comforters of their distre...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 298 14148
The success of the new doctrines was almost everywhere so great, that the princes, who at that time happened to be on bad terms with the court of Rome, were, by means of them, easily enabled, in their own dominions, to overturn the church, which havi...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 298 14152
The tyranny of Christiern II., and of Troll archbishop of Upsal, enabled Gustavus Vasa to expel them both from Sweden. The pope favoured the tyrant and the archbishop, and Gustavus Vasa found no difficulty in establishing the reformation in Sweden. C...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 299 14197
As long as the people of each parish preserved the right of electing their own pastors, they acted almost always under the influence of the clergy, and generally of the most factious and fanatical of the order. The

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 300 14247
father Porée, a jesuit of no great eminence in the republic of letters, was the only professor they had ever had in France, whose works were worth the reading.

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 301 14281
The magistrates of the powerful canton of Berne, in particular, have accumulated, out of the savings from this fund, a very large sum, supposed to amount to several millions; part or which is deposited in a public treasure, and part is placed at inte...

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 301 14301
A man of a large revenue, whatever may be his profession, thinks he ought to live like other men of large revenues; and to spend a great part of his time in festivity, in vanity, and in dissipation.

0104 PART IV Of the Expense of supporting the Dignity of the Sovereign.

0105 CONCLUSION

02 CHAPTER II OF THE SOURCES OF THE GENERAL OR PUBLIC REVENUE OF THE SOCIETY. The


0201 PART I Of the Funds, or Sources, of Revenue, which may peculiarly belong to the Sovereign or Commonwealth.
0202 PART II Of Taxes.

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0201 PART I Of the Funds, or Sources, of Revenue, which may peculiarly belong to the Sovereign or Commonwealth.

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 303 14361
The funds, or sources, of revenue, which may peculiarly belong to the sovereign or commonwealth, must consist, either in stock, or in land. The

0202 PART II Of Taxes.

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 310 14727
The tythe, and every other land tax of this kind, under

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 312 14788
Taxes upon the Rent of Houses. The

03 ARTICLE II.—Taxes upon Profit, or upon the Revenue arising from Stock. The revenue


0301 Taxes upon the Profit of particular Employments. In

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Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 315 14925
First, the quantity and value of the land which any man possesses, can never be a secret, and can always be ascertained with great exactness. But

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 315 14960
Secondly, land is a subject which cannot be removed;

0301 Taxes upon the Profit of particular Employments. In

04 APPENDIX TO ARTICLES I. AND II. Taxes upon the Capital Value of Lands, Houses, and Stock.

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05 APPENDIX TO ARTICLES I. AND II. Taxes upon the Capital Value of Lands, Houses, and Stock. While

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Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 320 15202
There is no art which one government sooner learns of another, than that of draining money from the pockets of the people.

06 ARTICLE III.---Taxes upon the Wages of Labour.


0601 Taxes upon Consumable Commodities.

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Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 323 15304
ARTICLE IV.---Taxes which it is intended should fall indifferently upon every different Species of Revenue. The

Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations, 323 15308
Capitation Taxes.

0601 Taxes upon Consumable Commodities.

07 CHAPTER III OF PUBLIC DEBTS.

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6 Victor Hugo:
Notre dame de Paris


KindleLink: Victor Hugo: Notre dame de Paris
AjkReview: ajk

590pages

Victor Hugo: Notre dame de Paris, 292 24554
ce qu'en dit Manou: «Où les femmes sont honorées, les divinités sont réjouies; où elles sont méprisées, il est inutile de prier Dieu.--La bouche d'une femme est constamment pure; c'est une eau courante, c’est un rayon de soleil.-Le nom d’une femme d...

Victor Hugo: Notre dame de Paris, 300 24722
retourna vers Claude avec la vive prestesse d'un hoche-queue.

Victor Hugo: Notre dame de Paris, 300 24725
Qui non laborat non manducet..

Victor Hugo: Notre dame de Paris, 444 27652
padelt_, ce qui veut dire en turc: _Dieu est notre espérance..

Victor Hugo: Notre dame de Paris, 525 29285
Châteaupers à la rescousse! Prévôté! prévôté!

Victor Hugo: Notre dame de Paris, 533 29459
connétable de France galant

7 Mark Twain:
The Gilded Age


KindleLink: Mark Twain: The Gilded Age
AjkReview: ajk

513pages

Mark Twain: The Gilded Age, 326 6535
she world take it away

Mark Twain: The Gilded Age, 395 7906
digging a bole in

8 Mark Twain:
The Prince and the Pauper


KindleLink: Mark Twain: The Prince and the Pauper
AjkReview: ajk

288pages

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