LEV BALASHOV
PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY
OR
SOPHOLOGY

ПРАКТИЧЕСКАЯ ФИЛОСОФИЯ
или
СОФОЛОГИЯ

Из цикла «Философские беседы»

Л. Е. БАЛАШОВ

How we think, thus we live
Better thinking – better living.
Как мы думаем, так и живем.
Лучше думаем — лучше живем

МОСКВА • 2007

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CONTENTS  <20090401>
WHAT IS PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY (SОPHОLOGY)?			  9 <20090401> 
I. QUESTIONS OF THE VISION OF WORLD				 13
II. LIFE, DEATH, IMMORTALITY					 19 <20090405>
1. The problem of death and immortality			 19 <20090406>
2. Life versus death						 27 <20090408>
   Death as absolute						 27
   Logics of killing people 
   (imaginary absolution of death)				 27
   Fear of death and desperation 
   (emotional absolution of death)				 32 <20090410>
   To live means to die?						 37
   To death there is no justification 
   (critics of claim that death has positive value)		 40
   Is death natural and necessary?				 41 
   Death is a factor of progress?				 43 <20090412>
   Is death necessary for life?					 48 <20090414>
   Immortality bad means death good?				 56 <20090415>
   Euthanasy is 'good' death					 57 <20090416>
3. Immortality as absolute					 60
   About the attractiveness of the idea of immortality	 60
   Plato and Seneca: cases in favor of immortality		 63 <20090417>
   Why absolute personal immortality is impossible?		 67 <20090418>
4. Living connection between mortality and immortality	 70 <20090419>
5. How do we 'work' immortality?				 78
   Reproduction of human race: love				 78 <20090420>
   Creative immortality						 89 <20090426>
6. Potential immortality						 94 <20090427>
7. Actual immortality						102 <20090503>
8. Active long life							112 <20090514>
   Why do people try to live as long as possible and 
   why they should live as long as possible?			116 <20090618>
   What must be done to live long and happy?			118
9. Virtual immortality						121 <20090620>
10.Finality and endlessness of being 
	in perspective of life					122 <20090621>
11.About life, purpose and aim of life				125 <20090623>
   What is life?							125
   The purpose of life						127 <20090624>
   The aim of life							129 <20090722>
   Does the lifetime increase or diminish by aging?		132 <20090724>
III. HUMAN HAPPINESS						134
   Mutual idea of life and happiness				134
1. What is happiness?						134
2. Happiness: a result of fortune and fight and work	135
3. Happiness is a combination of being satisfied 
   and not being it							136
4. Is it possible to make people happy, or even more: 
   to get them stay happy?					137 <20090729>
IV. ABOUT LOVE							140
1. Love-feeling and love-doing					141
2. Love - sexual							144 <20090730>
3. Love is the sun of life					146
4. The value of love for life					147
   Love as value in itself					150 <20090731>
5. Love: norm, deviation, pathology				151
6. Remarks on love							153
   Lyrics and erotics						153 <20090801>
   Love and marriage.						154
   Sexual moral							155
   «Alyosha kind of love»						156
   About 'Lolita', the book of V. Nabokov			158 <20090802>
7. About the culture of love sex				158 <20090803>
V. CREATIVENESS							167 <20090806>
   What profession to choose?					167
VI. HUMAN AMONG OTHER HUMANS (HOW TO BEHAVE 
    IN A SOCIETY?)							169
1. Human in a society						169
2. Golden rule of behavior					170
   Some history							171
   Ancestors about golden rule					171
   Т. Hobbes and D. Locke about golden rule			174 <20090810>
   The golden rule and categorial imperative of 
   Immanuel Kant							177
   The golden rule in the justification of good by 
   V.S. Solovev							180 <20090811>
   The golden rule is the main principle of 
   human intercourse						186
   The golden rule is far from being as elementary as 
   it seems to be							191
3. Good and evil							193 <20090812>
   Discriminating moral concepts of good and evil from 
   general concepts of good and evil				194
   What is such good?						195
   Good and bad in the mutual correspondency of 
   reality and possibility					196 <20090813>
   Human being is good by its nature. Good and evil 
   relate to each other as norm and patology			201 <20090814>
   How to fight evil and is it necessary to fight evil?	210 <20090926>
4. Humanism is the philosophy of mankind 
   (theses about humanism)					212 <20091003>
   Comments to the theses						222 <20091013>
5. About love to oneself and others. Egoism, altruism and 
   normal behavior. Possible correction: moral issues	244 <20091019>
6. Collectivism and/or individualism				251
   Collectivism: pro and contra					252 <20091024>
   The positive strength of collectivism			253
   Defects of collective principle: 
   'one for all and all for one'				255
   Destructive or deformed collectivism 
   (hypercollectivism)						256
   Positive meaning of individualism				256 <20091025>
   Suffocation by embracing (communistic collectivism)	258
   Distortions of collectivism and individualism		259
   Mutual enablement of collectivism and individualism	259
   Friendship is a compromise and symbiose of 
   individualism and collectivism				260 <20091027>
   Comradeship							261
   Fraternity							262
   Humanness								262
   Patriotism, nationalism, chauvinism				262
7. Duty								265
8. Conscience							268 <20091028>
9. Nobility								271
10. Unhappy and criminal conscience				272 <20091101>
11. About the culture of behavior				274 <20091102>
   Normal human relations - a fine material			276 <20091103>
   About good education						278 <20091104>
   About politeness							279
   Magic words							279
   Ethics of telephone discussion				279
   Gratefulness, punctuality					281
VII. LIBERALISM AND FREEDOM					282
1. Liberalism							282 <20091105>
2. Freedom								287 
   Contradictory views on freedom				287 <20091106>
   On a so called paradox of freedom				292
   Freedom as a possibility of choice				295 <20091107>
   Ability of choice						298 <20091108>
   Formula of freedom						302
   Dependence and independence					306
VIII. CRITICS OF THE IDEAS OF SOCIALISM AND COMMUNISM	309 <20091109>
   Mechanical totalitarianism					315 <20091110>
IX. NEGATIVE OF LIFE. ANTICULTURE AND ANTIPHILOSOPHY	317
   Anticulture							317
   Anticulture is a disease of civilization			317
   Propaganda of anomaly in modern society			320 <20091111>
   About the effect of mass media, litterature, 
   movie on human behavior, society as a whole		329 <20091212>
   What can be learnt of the modern advertising?		336 <20091214>
   Necrophilia of anticulture					341 <20091215>
   About the so called 'right to die'				346 <20091216>
   Philosophy of killing						350 <20091217>
   Boom of mysticism						362 <20091216>
   Antiphilosophy (Herostrat philosophy)			371 <20091226>
   F. Nietzsche is a führer of anticulture			371
   A philosophic monster, such a Hlestakov-Zhirinovsky	372 <20091227>
   Antihumanist without any qualification			374 <20091229>
   Greatest philosophic terrorist				377 <20091230>
   Contemptuous-disdainful relation to woman			378
   Racist, pretender of Arian race as a master race		379
   Philosophy of Nietzsche is a philosophy of conflict, 
   aggression, warmongery						380
   Nihilism of Nietzsche						381
   Psychedelic mysticism of Carlos Castañeda			381 <20091231>
   The Castañeda shot						384 <20100105>
X. ABOUT THE DANGER OF NARCOTICIANS AND 
   FASCINATION OF LIFE WITHOUT THEM				387
1. About how to avoid use of narcotics				388
   Why people use narcotics?					388
   The ubiquity of narcotic anticulture 
   as an infection of the modern Russia			388 <20100106>
   From where arouses the wish to try narcotics and 
   how to fight it?							390 <20100107>
2. How to overcome the destructive dependency		399
   About the use of so called weak (soft) narcotics		399
XI. HOW DO WE THINK?						403 <20100108>
1. Reason, understanding, deliberation				405 <20100109>
   Quality of thinking						419
   Slyness								419 <20100112>
   Wisdom								420 <20100113>
2. Deliberation (deductive thinking)				421
   Deliberation and logics					421
   Deduction, reasoning						422
   Limits of deductive logics					424
3. Probabilistic thinking						425 <20100114>
   Assumption							425
4. Reason (intuition)						426
   Feeling, opinion, inference, guesswork			426
   What is needed for development of feeling, 
   intuition?							427
   Limitation and absolution of intuition			428
5. Reason (dialectic thinking)					429 <20100115>
   Dialectics of ideas						430
   How does idea develop thinking?				435 <20100117>
   Location of idea in the creative process			439 <20100119>
6. Categorial structure of thinking				447
   Categorial logics of thinking				448
   How categories are working and emerging?			451 <20100120>
   'Kitchen' of categorial logics				456 <20100123>
   Categories are colors and brushes for 
   the philosopher							461
   Methodological function of categorical logics		462
7. Common sense, sound idea (norm in thinking, normal 
   thinking)								465
1. Sound idea is a great value in thinking			465 <20100124>
2. About the history of question				467
3. Against the valuation of sound idea as of working 
   only 'within the walls of homestead'			471 <20100125>
4. Limitations of sound idea					472
5. Versatility and manifoldness of sound thinking		473
6. Sound thinking can be developed and corrected		474
7. Unsound thinking, unsound idea				475
8. How we think, so we live					476
XII. FOR PHILOSOPHERS - ABOUT PRACTICAL 
     PHILOSOPHY (SOPHOLOGY)					478
1. About practical philosophy and necessity of founding 
   an institute of practical philosophy (sophology)		478 <20100126>
   Why do we need practical philosophy? Arguments for 
   supporting institute of practical philosophy		478
   Goals for the work (consulting and conversation) 
   of practical philosopher (sophologist)			483
   Methods and forms of working for practical 
   philosopher							484
   Rules of behavior for sophologist in the situation 
   of consulting and conversation				485
   Themes for philosophic consultation, conversation and 
   deliberation							485
   Effects of conversation with sophologist			487
   Tasks of sophologist						488
   Organization of the work of practical philosophers 
   (sophologists)							489 <20100127>
2. Practical philosophy in the history of human thought	491 <20100128>
   Great philosophers of antiquity				467
   Renaissance time philosophers				476
   Kant, Hegel and other practical philosophers 		479 <20100129>
3. General situation in the Center of 
   practical philosophy						494 <20100202>
APPENDIX 1. Open letter to all killers and 
   orderers of killers 						499 <20100208> 
APPENDIX 2. Recommendations of different authors 
   in the spirit of practical philosophy 			503 
Index of names							509 <20100209>
Index of subjects							512
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